Centrophenoxine ontherwise known as meclofenoxate (Lucidril) is a prescription drug on most countries. It is a nootropic drug developed to cure memory problems (e.g. dementia). It is also considered as an anti-aging drug. Centrophenoxine has been extensively studied for the past decades; however, most studies involved animals. Currently, it is an over-the-counter drug in France and a number of studies involving centrophenoxine are focused on its potential benefits Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive problems.
Centrophenoxine is primarily a cholinergic compound. It is structurally related to its parent molecule dimethylethanolamin/dimethyl amino ethanol (DMAE) – a naturally occuring substance that can be obtained from fishes and is considered to be more potent than the latter.
[msgbox]Chemical name/IUPAC: 2-Dimethylaminoethyl 4-chlorophynoxyacetate hydrochloride
Chemical formula: C12 H16 Cl NO3
Usage: anti-aging supplement; cognitive enhancer[/msgbox]
Mechanisms of Action:
The principal mechanism of action of centrophenoxine remains to be clouded with various hypotheses. Numerous hypotheses were studied and explained by researchers. These include:
Increase Acetylcholine levels
It is thought that centrophenoxine promotes cholinergic activities. It produces choline and other essential phospholipids which are hereby converted to acetylcholine. With increased acetylcholine levels, brain plasticity or the communication between neurons is enhanced. This improvement leads to better neuromuscular control and memory formation.
Enhanced oxygen and glucose intake
Centrophenoxine works through increasing the chemical activities and the overall functions of the brain. It exerts its function by improving oxygen and glucose absorption. As such, there is increased fuel to provide energy to the body and the brain.
Lipofuscin is the accumulation of potassium in the skin cells, lungs, heart and brain. Generally, this event is not dangerous; however, if a cell accumulates more potassium, it becomes less functional. As it is, the cell may even die. Lipofuscin accumulates in the body as time passes by; its symptoms are generally seen as aging. Centrophenoxine works by eliminating or decreasing the levels of lipofuscin/potassium build up in the body. As such, longevity and improved general body function is achieved. This is primary reason why centrophenoxine is considered as an anti-aging supplement.
Increase RNA production
Another mechanism of action associated with centrophenoxine is increased RNA production. Centrophenoxine increases essential proteins and RNA production necessary for normal cognitive functioning. RNA formation enables the neurons to develop essential proteins which can help in cell repair and memory enhancement.
Through these mechanisms of action, centrophenoxine has the ability to decrease the rate of brain functioning degeneration seen on dementia, brain damage, memory decline related to aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, it may help in eliminating free radicals in the body thereby reducing body and brain aging.
There are many studies indicating the efficacy of centrophenoxine on aging, dementia, memory decline and Alzheimer’s, however, most involved animals which haven’t been replicated to humans. The following clinical trials are limited, warranting further research.
Tardive dyskinesia treatment
The increased levels activities of dopamine and decreased levels or activities of choline are considered as the culprit of tardive dyskinesia. In order to measure the efficacy of centrophenoxine as a cholinergic agent, researchers of the current study orally administered meclofenoxate (600-1200 mg/day) to eleven participants with dystonia or tardive dyskinesia. Results revealed that 64% of the participants experienced slight to significant improvement. As such, meclofenoxate have potential positive effects on treating dyskinesias .
Memory loss improvement
A double-blind study involving healthy, elderly participants was carried out. Subjects were given centrophenoxine for a period of time. After the study period, they were assessed using specific memory performance measures and tests. Results of these tests revealed that centrophenoxine increases conversion of recent information into long-term memory. Subjective reports also suggested that it enhances mental alertness .
Another double-blind trial involving 50 individuals diagnosed with moderate dementia was performed. Subjects were initially treated with placebo for two weeks. Subsequently, they were given centrophenoxine for eight weeks. Laboratory tests were carried out after the two week placebo treatment. Results showed significant improvement. Psychometric test were improved and there was a significant improvement on intracellular water content signifying the anti-oxidant properties of centrophenoxine .
The anti-aging properties of centrophenoxine were further studied in a quantitative trial using the human glia cells. These cells were treated with centrophenoxine. Close study of the supplements effect revealed that it increase cell division by 30-40%. It also inhibits accumulation of potassium on said cells, thereby influencing cell mitotic division and cell metabolism which ultimately lead to delayed cellular aging .
Documented reports indicate that centrophenoxine has mild side effects which are generally tolerated by users. Other than this, it demonstrated its ability to treat certain memory problems and promote anti-oxidant properties. Additional research with larger sample human populations on this particular drug supplement is still needed however.