Nootropic Review: Pyritinol

Pyritinol is a nootropic that has been patented by Merck in 1961. It’s recognized to be one of the oldest nootropics still being used today. Pyritinol generated a number published research in 1980s and 1990s during its early study period, and this is likely due to its wide number of uses, efficiency, and safety of the nootropic. The majority of the study done on the drug has been published in a number of Czech, Swiss, German, French, and British journals [1].

The nootropic is virtually not popular in the United States and has been ignored by the FDA and AMA. Pyritinol is also named as pyridoxine disulfide and Pyrithioxine [2] [3]. The nootropic’s molecule involves two pyridoxine sulfide molecules conjugated to create two sulfur atoms [3]. The drug has been widely used to enhance memory and to treat individuals with learning disorders, dementia, and rheumatoid arthritis [2]. Furthermore, Pyritinol has been classified as nootropic since the 1990s [1].

Pyritinol

Dosages of Pyritinol

The half-life of the nootropic is around two and a half hours. Most common daily intake are within the 400 to 600 mg per day although it’s still no unusual to take in 100 mg or as much 1,200 mg daily. The drug is frequently sold in tablet form with labels that indicate ingesting the supplement with food. An average lethal dosage for oral intake is around 300 mg per kg for mice, 980 mg per kg for rats, and up t0 3,200 mg per kg for rabbits [4] [5].

Mechanisms of Pyritinol

Pyritinol facilitates more blood flow to the cerebrum of the brain via nerve cell enhancement. It’s also capable of moving intracellular choline from the choline kinase pathway to synthesize Acetylcholine, a known neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine hosts a number of functions in the nervous system as well as memory retention, muscle movement, and alertness sustainability [6].

Observed Benefits

The nootropic was utilized in France as a modifying drug that interrupts the progress of rheumatoid arthritis. It’s also capable of treating cognitive disorders by increasing the functions of the brain and learning capabilities [7] [8].

A study that involved 12 volunteers compared performance on a number of psychological tests found that subjects provided with Pyritinol doses showed enhance performance on a choice reaction time experiment to an extended degree than those taking a placebo. However, memory tests didn’t offer big differences in the performance of both groups [5].

A small group study gave support to a theory that Pyritinol doses taken during alcohol intake may lessen hangover-related symptoms [2].

Toxicity Issues

Pyritinol has a reputation for being safe. But in small and reported cases, the nootropic may be responsible for cholestatic hepatitis [9]. A study that compared the drug’s effectiveness with that of Auranofin (an anti-rheumatic drug) noted serious muscle and gastrointestinal effects in patients although such effects also surfaced in users of Auranofin as well [10].

References:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyritinol
  2. http://examine.com/supplements/Pyritinol/#ref2
  3. http://nootriment.com/pyritinol
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC381054
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2135070
  6. http://www.smarternootropics.com/table-of-contents/pyritinol
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC381054
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23120794
  9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15001508
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8495257
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