Nootropic Review: Bacopa

BacopaBacopa is a herb (also considered as a nootropic) that is dominant in Ayurvedic medicine [1]. It’s been recommended traditionally for enhancing memory and treating asthma and epilepsy. The nootropic is also classed as an adaptogen since it’s very effective in mitigating stress [2]. Bacoside, a class of compounds, are believed to be responsible for the majority of the nootropic’s effects, with Bacoside A being frequently studied [3].

Bacopa, as a nootropic, has been the referee frequently an anxiolytic, memory, and cognitive enhance. Based on a plenty of research done with the substance, Bacopa is capable of: [4]

  • Curbing drug-induced amnesia in animals
  • Normalizing levels of neurotransmitters in varying animals
  • Enhancing antioxidant content in the brains of rats
  • Improving memory for humans regardless of age
  • Minimizing anxiety
  • Enhancing workload capacity for individuals suffering from anxiety
  • Limiting error rates in varying cognitive tasks

Nootropic Stack

Bacopa is a recommended addition to the majority of nootropic stacks today. It functions to minimize anxiety and enhance memory. It seems to do so via adaptogenic means and by facilitating normal neurotransmitter levels while limiting dopamine and serotonin spikes after administering morphine in rats.

As a result of its unique processes, it can be stacked with most nootropics (adaptogens excluded), without worrying about overcooking a precise pathway. The supplement seems to take weeks to have an effect and shouldn’t be dependent on as an acute anxiolytic [5].

Dosages of Bacopa

Bacopa is mainly fat soluble and should be ingested with a meal. Each dosage of 150 mg, twice daily is a good starting point. Human clinical trials who have benefited from the drug utilized 150 mg of dosage [6].

Benefits of Bacopa

The nootropic is known to be a memory enhancer in Ayurvedic medicine. Research continues to back this traditional belief today. A rat study done indicated how Bacopa was capable of treating scopolamine-induced amnesia while offering protection against spatial memory impairment [7].

A number of human studies have confirmed that the supplement is capable of enhancing memory to individuals over 50 years of age, improving recall and memory retention and fighting depression.Whatever even more interesting is that a 12-week study done on 46 participants (between the ages of 18to 60 years), confirmed that the nootropic enhances verbal learning, early information processing speed,and memory formation [8] [9].

A study involving 40 children between the ages of six to eight years indicate how Bacopa is capable of:

  • Decreasing the time of reaction, performance, and errors in a visual-motor performance experiment
  • Dramatically enhancing digit span
  • Enhancing reaction time in a Raven’s definite matrices

Another study involving 35 participants with anxiety proved how the nootropic is capable of minimizing the average anxiety score, enhance behavior such as that of interaction, improve memory, and minimize mental fatigue. Such study was done without a placebo. The 35 participants were divided into 2 or 4-week treatment schedules. Both groups saw remarkable improvement, which suggests that Bacopa doesn’t require a lot of time to take effect. However, the biggest benefits were observed in the group who were treated for four weeks [8].

Mechanism of Bacopa

A number of studies indicate that the nootropic is capable of supporting antioxidant brain levels which include catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione. In the brains of rats, Bacopa was shown to offer protection against aluminum and mercury neurotoxicity by minimizing oxidative stress [10].

Safety and Side Effects

Frequent observations in human trials done with Bacopa involved certain forms of gastrointestinal distress, cramping, increased stool frequency, and nausea. It’s sensible to ingest the nootropic with a fatty source (as frequently recommended) to ensure full absorption. Dividing the daily dosages to 2-3 servings may also aid in offsetting Gastrointestinal problems [11].

The recommended dosage of 250 mg per kg found it capable of minimizing spermatogenesis without affecting hormone and libido levels. Such effect can be overturned after termination of intake [12].

 References:

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20528765
  2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12957224
  3. http://www.wellcorps.com/Therapeutic-Effects-of-Bacopa-Monnieri.html
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19808086
  5. http://www.smarternootropics.com/bacopa
  6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18683852
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21607013
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11498727
  9. http://www.bacopin.com/funchtionchild.htm
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10815010
  11. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20590480
  12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19041444

Nootropic Review: Semax

Semax is a nootropic created by the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Science. The nootropic was developed within the early 1908s to 1990s and later gained authorization to be marketed to the public [1]. Within Russia, the substance was utilized for treating brain stroke, brain damage after ischemia, optic nerve diseases, and other cognitive disorders. Furthermore, the nootropic has been shown during a private human study to improve cognitive capabilities effectively while positively managing EEG bands [2].

Enhancement in Cognition

A 2-day clinical study done of Russian power plant employees tested the effectiveness of the nootropic through a number of memory-related tasks. The test lasted for 15 minutes where the first half was done at the start and the other half at the end of employee shift on the first and second day respectively.

A 1 mg dosage was given via the nasal cavity on the first day one hour before testing and the second day shortly after the morning tests were conducted.A placebo group was also asked to conduct the same task.

Semax significantly minimized the number if erroneous responses on the first and last day while the error rate from the placebo group surged. The substance also attenuated a dip in proper performance scores compared to those taking a placebo [3].

Mood Aspects

Animal studies done showcased Semax to have the potential for enhancing mood and minimizing anxiety [4]. A recent rat study indicated the nootropic to be capable of minimizing CCK-4 induced depression and stress while not affecting rats given a placebo.

CCK-4 is a powerful neuropeptide that triggers anxiety in animals and human. So much so, the chemicals utilized to trigger panic attacks when scientists are seeking for treatment choices. Such study mostly indicated that rats offered nothing or with Semax was in the same state of mood while rats given CCK-4 were further depressed and anxious on a maze and swim test.

Mixing Semax and CCK-4 back to levels of placebo particular mood parameters, indicate Semax to be capable of treating individuals who are depressed or anxious, while leaving the healthy state as is [5].

An abstract study done featured within the International Journal of Psychophysiology talked about how Semax, combined with Selank, were capable of triggering sedation effects and relieving certain effects of mental health in animals [6].

The Semax was found to minimize severe psychotic disturbance times (at 1 to five days) compared to placebo (at 1 to nine days) when given a dosage of 0.6mg daily via inhalation. With subsiding acute symptoms of Semax given at 0.3 mg per day, enhanced cognitive function, and minimal asthenic disorders were observed compared to placebo [7].

Mechanism of Semax

Semax structureWithin the glial cell structures, both levels of NGF and BDNF increased eight times than normal and gave more after being exposed to Semax. In rats, the nootropic was shown to increase levels of BDNF and trkB levels by up to 1.6 times. Comprehensive research done indicated the nasal intake of Semax promotes an increase in BDNF of rats brains [8] [9] [10].

Alpha Brain Wave Activity

Semax was indicated to alter EEG in human cognitive and hyperventilation tests. During the cognitive test, the chemical dramatically decreased the activity of a delta brainwave and enhanced alpha and beta brain rhythm [11] [12].

Safety Aspects

Semax appears to be completely non-toxic and safe. In Russia, the drug is headed under the list of essential and required drugs where it received approval for treating medical conditions such as migraine, stroke, and other cognitive disorders. At the same time, it has comprehensively been tested and included in numerous clinical trials with no reports of hormonal changes or side effects [1] [13].

References:

  1. http://old.img.ras.ru/semax1-e.htm
  2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11569188
  3. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6769%28199609%2919:2%3C115::AID-NRC171%3E3.0.CO;2-B/pdf
  4. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11064-005-8826-8#page-2
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20387390
  6. https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/elsevier/the-cerebroprotective-effects-of-Semax-and-selank-in-primates-at-gHqfNvoDEw
  7. http://www.google.com/patents/US20100222286
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18756821
  9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19662538
  10. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/26724475_Comparison_of_the_temporary_dynamics_of_NGF_and_BDNF_gene_expression_in_rat_hippocampus_frontal_cortex_and_retina_under_Semax_action
  11. http://brain.bio.msu.ru/research_e.htm
  12. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/237217244_Synthetic_ACTH_analogue_Semax_displays_nootropic-like_activity_in_humans
  13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semax

Nootropic Review: Phenibut

phenibutCreated in the Soviet Union back in the 1960s, Phenibut (also referred to as Phenybut or Noofen) is naturally observed within the GABA, the body’s primary neurotransmitter) [1]. The nootropic has been indicated to offer anti-stress, anti-anxiety, and a soothing effect on the body similar to another substance, Baclofen [2]. Phenibut has been observed to offer nootropic mechanisms not only for its neuroprotective properties but also for minimizing amnesia and aiding in sleep [3].

The nootropic was deemed such a tremendous success from the Russian cosmonaut’s medical team that they made a decision to make it a mandate in their medical kits. Phenibut is a replacement in other tranquilizers since they didn’t make cosmonauts sleepy. At the same time, it helped lower their stress levels without any adverse effects in their cognitive abilities [4] [5].

Phenibut is a recommended inhibitory compound since it aids users to wind quickly down if any mild insomnia is observed. The nootropic is beneficial since it enhances the normal sleep cycle for improved sleep and better cognitive capabilities the next day [6].

Primary Findings of Phenibut

  • Effective in alleviating fear, tension, depression, and anxiety [7]
  • Effective in fighting against alcohol toxicity
  • Features anti-oxidant properties
  • With anti-amnesic and neuroprotective mechanisms [8]
  • Protection from decreased cognition after lack of sleep

Details of Phenibut

Phenibut is a substance that is said to fight anxiety and stress. Comprehensive studies have shown the drug to possess neuroprotective and anti-amnesic mechanisms. Widely known in Russia for its nootropic effects, the drug crept its way into the country’s medical practice for its sedative properties compared to traditional tranquilizers.

Many Russian cosmonauts found Phenibut helpful since it lacked sedation and cognitive impairment unlike that of other medications. Such qualities are essential since levels of stress are high during years of travelling in space. The compound is required to alleviate stress without interrupting cognitive performance [9].

Phenibut has been utilized in Russia for a number of applications which include relief from fear and tension, and enhanced sleep in neurotic or psychosomatic patients. Stuttering and post-traumatic stress disorders also involved the use of Phenibut.

The compound has been indicated to exhibit anti-amnesic effects when scopolamine-amnesia is triggered. It even surpassed the same anti-amnesic properties of Piracetam. Phenibut showcased anti-oxidant effects when experimented on the spleen. Such health benefit is further pushed when studies showed that the nootropic efficiently curbed brain injury after an alcohol intake as well as preventing induced hypoxia damage [10] [11].

Mechanisms of PhenibutPhenibut structure

Being a GABA derivative, Phenibut has been shown to function as an agonist to the metabotropic GABA receptor. It also has an agonist process to the GABA A receptor at larger dosages. Such process lets the nootropic offers an inhibitory and calming effect on the brain.

Further studies have also shown how the compound lessens norepinephrine levels found in the hippocampus thereby minimizing unnecessary stimulation. Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant properties are a result of increased neurotransmitter metabolites observed after ingesting the nootropic [12] [13].

References:

  1. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1527-3458.2001.tb00211.x/pdf
  2. http://www.raysahelian.com/phenibut.html
  3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11830761
  4. http://www.phenibutforanxiety.com/thescienceofphenibut.php
  5. http://corpina.org/complete-guide-responsible-phenibut-use
  6. http://nootriment.com/phenibut-sleep-aid
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23391959
  8. http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/26/1_MeetingAbstracts/672.6
  9. https://www.erowid.org/references/refs_view.php?ID=8524
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3609269
  11. http://www.dr-bob.org/babble/alter/20040815/msgs/384573.html
  12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22232912
  13. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15776965

Nootropic Review: Adrafinil

AdrafinilAdrafinil is a nootropic belonging under the “eugeroic” category. It’s later broken down into Modafinil when it reaches the liver resulting to a number of beneficial effects. Both Adrafinil and Modafinil are nootropics with wakeful-enhancing properties. But unlike that of Modafinil, Adrafinil isn’t regulated in the United States and requires a private purchase.With that mind, the nootropic is said to offer unpleasant side effects, so caution is a must [1] [2].

Mechanism of Adrafinil

While the precise mechanism of the nootropic isn’t completely confirmed, there a host of theories regarding its effects. One widely known theory indicates that it enhances hypocretin, a brain neurotransmitter. Hypocretin aids in appetite, wakefulness, and arousal. Through increasing such neurotransmitter within the hypothalamus, it’s been thought to increase dopamine, histamine, and norepinephrine levels. A surge in these chemicals is said to be the primary mechanism of Adrafinil [3].

Another theory regarding its process that is less known than what was mentioned is that the nootropic activates the glutamate pathways while halting the GABA pathways. That is said to promote wakefulness and alertness [4].

Benefits of Adrafinil

Adrafinil carries some benefits inherited by Modafinil. Some indicate that the nootropic is a weaker version of Modafinil. Others believe Adrafinil isn’t as effective as that of Modafinil. But nevertheless, the nootropic is recommended for increasing alertness with lesser side effects compared to stimulants that depend on monoaminergic systems [4].

Individuals who have ingested Adrafinil say it does an excellent job in enhancing memory and learning. It can be utilized in cases where high mental demand is needed to aid in alertness and focus. There’s proof that the nootropic can assist with concentration and even help people with ADHD symptoms. The supplement should never be, in any way, be taken without the advice from a physician [5].

Adrafinil Safety

Adrafinil carries certain risks. The compound may place additional strain on the heart, and while it is unconsidered as strenuous as that of amphetamines, there are risks involved. Individuals with a healthy heart shouldn’t but worried, but it’s highly recommended not to ingest Adrafinil if one currently or has had heart-related problems. Combining Adrafinil with other stimulants further increases risks to heart complications [6].

Adrafinil Interactions

Adrafinil structureAdrafinil can be mixed with stimulants and functions in a synergistic manner. This may be a concern if you combine the nootropic with substances that increase blood pressure or heart rate. There have been evidence that Modafinil can hinder some birth control products to be effective. It’s still not clear if Adrafinil carries the same mechanism, but it’s believed to carry a similar action [7].

Hepatotoxicity of Adrafinil

When the nootropic is broken down in the liver, it places a strain on the organ and increases liver enzymes. If an individual is connotative of high liver enzymes, it shouldn’t be recommended to ingest Adrafinil because it can damage the liver or cause liver failure. It’s advised to have a blood test done prior to taking the compound [8].

Tolerance/Withdrawal of Adrafinil

Adrafinil has a lower risk to addiction compared to other stimulants, but it can still be addictive in some ways. Any compound involving dopamine carries an increased addiction risk. Unfortunately, the nootropic falls into such category. Adrafinil has less euphoric effects compared amphetamines and has lesser abuse potential. If utilized properly to promote alertness, there’s a slight chance of developing an addiction [7] [9].

Ingesting the nootropic, usually can lead to drug tolerance over time and that is likely the case if ingested for a longer period. Cycling the drug can help eradicate such problem [9].

References:

  1. http://examine.com/supplements/Adrafinil/
  2. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/adrafinil#section=Top
  3. http://nootriment.com/adrafinil/
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11191710
  5. http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/adrafinil#section=Chemical-Vendors
  6. http://www.smart-publications.com/articles/adrafinil-alertness-without-stimulation
  7. https://www.erowid.org/smarts/adrafinil/adrafinil_info1.shtml
  8. http://livertox.nih.gov/ModafinilArmodafinil.htm
  9. http://nootropicsreview.org/how-to-use-adrafinil

Nootropic Review: Sulbutiamine

sulbutiamineSulbutiamine or commonly referred to as Arcalion, is nootropic that possesses a synthetic lipophilic derivative of thiamine. The supplement is capable of entering the blood-brain barrier swiftly and quietly [1]. The nootropic was created in Japan with an attempt to seek for a chemical capable of transporting thiamine to the brain to treat individuals with cerebral chronic fatigue [2].

At present, Phenylpiracetam is the only primary treatment for such condition and when ingested, offers mild stimulation. The Sulbutiamine is claimed to inherit a number of nootropic characteristics. It’s also known to treat individuals suffering from erectile dysfunction based on latest clinical studies [3] [4].

It’s recommended to not ingest Sulbutiamine in the middle of the day since it may lead to insomnia. It’s advised to not ingest the supplement daily since it can quickly lead to tolerance. The maximum benefit that can be done is only to take it when mental concentration and energy is extremely required for better performance [5] .

Primary Findings of Sulbutiamine

  • Significantly enhances mood
  • Effective treatment for long term fatigue
  • Improves learning and memory
  • Heightens focus and boosts overall energy
  • Effective treatment for erectile dysfunction

Details of Sulbutiamine

Primarily made for treating chronic fatigue, the nootropic offers mild stimulation which lead to mental concentration, motivation, and alertness. It has also been showcased to enhance overall cognition and memory by increasing Acetylcholine levels. For such reason, it has been utilized in enhancing memory especially for individuals suffering Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s [6].

An improvement of memory is observed due to the potentiation of reward centers, glutamatergic, and cholinergic delivery of Sulbutiamine. Animal studies done indicate an increase in operational conditioning and adequate recognition of objects [7].

Latest studies have shown that the nootropic is becoming more efficient in minimizing the dizocilpine effects seen in individuals with schizophrenia. People suffering Alzheimer’s showed remarkable daily improvement in activities when Sulbutiamine is administered simultaneously with any Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor [8].

In addition, studies found that Sulbutiamine is every effective in treating erectile dysfunction. 16 out of 20 patients were treated from erectile dysfunction symptoms. As an affordable and cheaper alternative to ED meds, many claims that Sulbutiamine is an excellent therapeutic advancement [4].

Mechanisms of Sulbutiamine

Sulbutiamine structureThe nootropic is capable of stimulating the body by functioning as a releasing medium for Glutamate in the central nervous system. Glutamate is one of the body’s primary neurotransmitters that let the central nervous system be stimulated while playing a critical role in learning and memory [9].

Sulbutiamine quickly enters the blood-brain barrier since it’s a lipophilic molecule. This makes it possible to be readily absorbed in the brain than thiamine. This is particularly handy since the nootropic is transformed into thiamine and provides a batter administration path. Thiamine is internally converted into Acetylcholine and GABA [6].

It’s been indicated that Sulbutiamine adds density to the D1 reward receptors found in the prefrontal cortex. This is done by minimizing the release of the reward neurotransmitter [10].

References:

  1. http://examine.com/supplements/Sulbutiamine
  2. http://www.smartdrugsforthought.com/what-is-sulbutiamine
  3. http://nootriment.com/sulbutiamine-side-effects
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15776829
  5. http://corpina.org/sulbutiamine-treatment-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
  6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulbutiamine
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4059305
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15951087
  9. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/230897996_Effect_of_Sulbutiamine_on_glutamate_transporters_%28EAAT1SLC1A3_and_EAAT2SLC1A2%29__nee_cell__Astrocyte_metabolism
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10996447

Nootropic Review: Phenylpiracetam

PhenylpiracetamPhenylpiracetam, otherwise known as Carphedon or Phenotropil, or scientifically named as (RS)-2-(2-Oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide, is a derivative of the first Racetam, with the main difference being an added benzene ring. Widely acclaimed to be 60 times more potent than its parent, it’s been shown to offer further neuroprotective anti-amnesic, and stimulatory effects. At the same time, it provides the capability to enhance physical stamina.

The nootropic has also been proven to be an overall stimulant compared to other Racetams. It’s also very handy in enhancing cold tolerance during intense exercise. Phenylpiracetam can easily be absorbed in the body and swiftly reaches the brain. It has an effect of improving cognition while functioning as a psychostimulant. Individual studies have shown slight anti-depressant properties and certain immunosuppressant capabilities.

Primary Findings

  •     Effective in minimizing cognitive decline due to biological reasons
  •     60 times are stronger than the first Racetam nootropic
  •     Offers potent psychostimulant
  •     Enhances resistance to cold, mental, and physical stamina
  •     Effective in treating asthenia
  •     Minimizes depression and anxiety symptoms
  •     Has some immunosuppressive mechanisms

Details of Phenylpiracetam

phenylpiracetam structureThe nootropic is a Phenyl derivative of the parent compound stemming from the first Racetam. But it was made to facilitate simple and quick absorption as a result of its increased lipophilicity. It’s found to be 60 times stronger compared to its parent. Phenylpiracetam is claimed to be stimulating in a mental and physical sense. It’s also responsible for enhancing resistance to cold and physical performance.

A study conducted indicate Phenylpiracetam to be anti-amnesic and neuroprotective than its Racetam parent. Another study showed that its psychostimulant properties were mildly strong with some cases of sleep disturbances.

Since the compound was discovered in Russia in 1990s, a number of studies demonstrated its effectiveness in treating individuals suffering from cognitive problems due to biological processes. Phenylpiracetam was initially utilized for asthenia, but other clinical studies showed a dramatic effect in minimizing depression and anxiety. Another separate study saw that depression symptoms were lessened those cognitive declines especially when the supplement was administered at 200 mg per day.

Furthermore, scientific findings showed that rats injected with the nootropic had improved motor function in terms of distance and velocity. One study showcased the supplement’s immunosuppressant capabilities when immunostress was enforced.

Mechanisms of Phenylpiracetam

As a result of the nootropic being a derivative of its parent, it’s been safe to assume that it functions similarly to that of other Racetams. It’s likely to work as an allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor, resulting to enhanced excitability of neurons. Improved blood flow action, increased oxygen supply to the brain and encouraging optimal cognition may also be possible.

The activation of NMDA glutamate and Ach receptors may be part of the nootropic’s process, which enhances memory, learning, energy and awareness. With Phenylpiracetam possessing a marked effect on physical stimulation, its mechanism on glutamate is possible with further implications of the sympathetic processes.

Nootropic Review: Centrophenoxine

CentrophenoxineCreated back in 1959, Centrophenoxine, or otherwise known as Centro, Lucidril, or Meclofenoxate is one of the first-generation nootropics unearthed by the French Scientific Research Center. The nootropic features a DMAE component, indicative of possessing a similar effect to that of DMAE, a cholinergic, which makes for an optimized transporter of DMAE to the brain. DMAE is a biological component found in most plants.

For a number of years, Centrophenoxine, has been extensively studied as a powerful nootropic, with a plethora of benefits to individuals suffering from disorders related to age that include Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. The nootropic has been indicated to overturn the effects of certain aging signs by“cleaning” up waste materials within the brain. Cognitive advantages of Centrophenoxine is fully supported by a long history of studies in half a century of work.

Primary Findings of Centrophenoxine

  • Very useful in enhancing long-term memory, mood, and mental awareness
  • Enhances overall intelligence, understanding of language, decision-making, and problem-solving.
  • Functions as an anti-oxidant
  • Increases synthesis of RNA and protein
  • Facilitates glucose uptake
  • Effective in treating dementia
  • Features anti-aging effects

Details of Centrophenoxine

In a previous study to decide the effect of the nootropic on memory, a double-blinded study of healthy elderly individuals was conducted. After numerous cognitive tests, it was observed that Centrophenoxine improved the union of information in long-term memory, with a dramatic surge in overall mental awareness.

After a series of initial hypotheses, it was indicated that the study should be carried out to determine the role of the nootropic in varying states of emotion.A 2003 double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical study, began to introduce varying emotional states utilizing 80 subjects, with half of the group comprising of males and the other half being females.

Making of excerpts from videos, electrical activity of brains for participants were measured to determine their current emotional state. Every excerpt was characteristic of three indicative groups: one of the groups acquired a placebo; the second received up to six weeks of dosage, and the last group bought 12 weeks of dosage. The result of the study indicated that shareholders who were exposed to Centrophenoxine for 12weeks were far more alert with enhanced mood.

Mechanisms of Centrophenoxine

structure of CentrophenoxineBased from the fundamental research done, the neotropics capable of overturning pigmentation of lipofuscin/beta-amyloid accumulation in the brain (with one of the build-up compositions thought to play a significant role in Alzheimer’s), and possess anti-oxidant effects from lipid peroxidation. RNA, protein, and glucose synthesis are also increased as observed in glial cells.

A particular interesting aspect found that Centrophenoxine has the unique ability to enhance intracellular water content, where intracellular dehydration is typically observed with aging.

Nootropic Review: Aniracetam

aniracetamAniracetam (also known as Sarpul, Referan,  Ampamet, or Memodrin) is a nootropic that carries several times more power compared to the first Racetam that was ever made. Aniracetam functioning as an AMPA receptor modulator is capable of enhancing memory and boosting judgment. At the same time, it spurs the mind to promote improved awareness, learning, and attention span.

The supplement has been proven useful for treating depression and memory loss symptoms in patients with dementia and Alzheimer’s. Aniracetam is deemed effective against some anxiety-related disorders, as well as social impairment. Latest studies suggest that the neuroprotective mechanisms seen in the nootropic exceeds that of the first Racetam produced.

Primary Findings of Aniracetam

  • Capable of fighting off against social impairment and anxiety-related disorders
  • Aids in enhanced awareness, learning, and attention span
  • Increases reward and empathogen neurotransmitter levels
  • Enhances memory in healthy individuals
  • Treats dementia and depression symptoms
  • Has a very high neuroprotective potential

Details of Aniracetam

The nootropic shares a similar cognitive profile as that of members of the Racetam umbrella which include Nefiracetam, Oxiracetam, Phenylpiracetam and Pramiracetam. Aniracetam is basically an Ampakine nootropic and has a number of benefits due to its safety profile that has little or no side effects. Studies of Aniracetam have been effective in its neuroprotective mechanisms after electroconvulsive shock, cerebral ischaemia, and scopolamine triggered damage to the brain. The supplements is capable of protecting neuronal cell death to a bigger extent than older Racetam generations.

From its mechanisms upon reward,AMPA receptor, and empathogen, research found it to treat symptoms a wide range of phobias, anxiety disorders, social impairment, and minimizes depression. As an Ampakine, it has a meaningful effect for individuals hurting from Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive problems. The potential to  ailment effects is identified including the capability to protect neurons previous to the occurrence of brain damage.

Glutamate and BDNF processes and AMPA receptor modulation lets Aniracetam enhance memory, learning, and attention while also improving neuronal plasticity.

Aniracetam shares a number of Racetam mechanisms, since there have been several sources indicating studies done on other Racetams.

Mechanisms of Aniracetam

aniracetam structureAniracetam is capable of providing a positive effect in learning, memory, and attention through its mechanisms on neuronal plasticity and modulation of the AMPA receptor. Through the deployment of Glutamate, Aniracetam is capable of facilitating swift synaptic transmission situated in the central nervous system.

An active mechanism on mood is observed after ingesting Aniracetam, and its capability of aiding individuals with anxiety is mediated via its reward systems, cholinergic, and empathogen processes.Signal of reward through the Acetycholinergic receptors may also be a process for treating anxiety and depression.

The nootropic is capable of binding to the AMPA receptors; changing its binding location and modifying effects of neurotransmitters such as Glutamate and Acetylcholine. Such biological binding also lets the receptor take advantage from a minimal rate of desensitization.

Based on the how most Racetams function, it’s considered safe to ingest Aniracetam even at high dosages. No significant side effects are experienced, and it’s non-toxic. Using the nootropic for the long term is a great benefit as a result of its neuroprotective mechanisms.

Nootropic Review: Sunifiram

SunifiramSunifiram or scientifically termed as 1-benzoyl four propanoyl piperazine, is a nootropic with an Ampakine like alkaloid stemming from piperazine. It’s been shown to be a thousand times more potent compared to first-generation Racetams with a difference of possessing Piperazine as the primary backbone instead of Pyrrolidine. Meaning, the nootropic isn’t exactly a Racetam, but it has a similar resemblance in terms of safety and mechanism.

Sunifiram is has a structure related to other nootropics such as that of  Unifiram and Sapunifiram. It’s also capable of Long Term Potentiation, which is highly potent yet rare nootropic characteristic.Sunifiram is capable of enhancing mental stimulation, enhance awareness and attention while helping with memory and learning through Acetylcholine properties.

In a nutshell, the strength and variable improvement in cognition provided by such nootropic make it an ideal addition with other nootropics.

Primary Findings of Sunifiram

  • One of the very few nootropics to offer enhanced Long Term Potentiation
  • With anti-amnesic action through AMPA receptors for reduced loss of memory
  • Enhances cognitive learning and memory via increased release of Acetylcholine
  • Effective in curbing chemically-triggered amnesia
  • Non-toxic effects even with dramatically increased dosage

Details of Sunifiram

Sunifiram show cases its potential of being one the most highly stimulating and powerful nootropics when it comes to improved Long Term Potentiation. LTP is considered to be one the most powerful components that contribute to cognitive learning and memory with a natural neuronal plasticity phenomena. LTP is triggered when two neurons are stimulated and firing at the time that lead to long term signal transmission enhancement.

While considered to be evenly stimulating, the nootropic has been said to have similar strengths as that of Noopept but with more concentration on memory compared to awareness. Sunifiram has been indicative to enhance NMDA-dependent signals through the Glycine binding site while increasing the activation of AMPA receptors that lead to its anti-amnesic properties. Further release of acetylcholine in the front cortex of the brain has beneficial effects in neuronal plasticity, awareness, perception,and arousal.

Latest studies indicate that a powerful anti-amnesic effect after an amnesia was triggered chemically via Baclofen, Clonidine, Scopolamine, and Diphenhydramine.

The release of Acetylcholine via pre-frontal cortex has been observed after Sunifiram has been given.Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter involved in attaining new memory formation and attention while offering reward and arousal systems and neuronal plasticity.

Mechanisms of Sunifiram

Sunifiram structureSunifiram has been proven to enhance PKC phosphorylation through the Glycine binding site which enhances the signaling of NMDA. This in turn increases LTP. The NMDA, which heavily depends on LTP has been confirmed in a 12-day oral dose clinical tests.

Rats with severe memory impairment have greatly benefitted from their training sessions after Sunifiram was given. Acetylcholine was also observed to be deployed from the pre-frontal cortex of the brain after Sunifiram was injected in the rats.

Nootropic Review: Oxiracetam

Oxiracetam is a nootropic hailing from the Racetam family. While it possesses similar mechanisms compared to other nootropics, it’s generally higher in terms of potency. Oxiracetam shares a host of properties as that of Aniracetam and Pramiracetam in enhancing mental focus, motivation, and memory. However, a fair number of users have reported faster onset and is said to be far more powerful than the other two nootropics.

Primary Findings of Oxiracetam

  • Mechanisms that lead to Long Term Potentiation
  • Effective treatment for excessive alcohol intake
  • Improves motivation, mental focus, and memory
  • Dramatically improves contextual and spatial learning
  • Enhances general cognition
  • Effective treatment for Schizophrenia, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, and dementia

Details of Oxiracetam

OxiracetamThe nootropic was the initial successor for the first generation of Racetams made. After triggering excitement from the Racetam family as well as its incredible properties in terms of cognition, scientists started their search for a more powerful alternative. Oxiracetam was later discovered to be that great alternative.

Oxiracetam is one of the many swift acting nootropics in the market. It’s widely administered in individuals with senile dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and from alcohol intoxication. The majority of users found that it functioned remarkably well with Choline-sourced products such as Citicoline and Alpha-GPC.Choline is deemed beneficial for individuals ingesting Racetams due to quick depletion of Acetylcholine triggered by the Racetams. Oxiracetam has been widely popular among students and working professionals who demand high performance all over the globe.

Being an important member of the Racetam family, the nootropic is non-toxic, non-habit forming, and side effect free. A number of people picked Oxiracetam as a critical aspect of their day-to-day snacking due to its collaborative performance with other nootropics.

Mechanisms of Oxiracetam

Oxiracetam structureThe precise mechanism of  Oxiracetam has yet to be elucidated like other Racetams. But recent models have showed that Oxiracetam levels have direct effects on certain neurotransmitters such as that of Glutamate and Acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is an essential neurotransmitter that helps the brain sustain needed attention while enhancing neuronal plasticity. It also has a number of other useful processes involving reward and arousal. This includes sensory perception as one wakes up and improved sleep via REM sleep patterns.Acetylcholine is capable of influencing our short term memory and neuronal plasticity mediation.

On the other hand, Glutamate is the primary excitatory transmitter of the body. It’s essential for triggering wakefulness and facilitating neuronal transmissions such as memory creation and general learning.

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