Nootropics Review: Gerovital (GH-3)

Gerovital is a nootropic made by Dr. Ana Aslan in Romania in the 1940s. Around that time, Aslan had been administering a procaine – an anesthetic to patients suffering from arthritis so they can achieve joint pain relief. The majority of her patients ended up with enhanced memory, decreased depression, improved skin tone, more energy, hair color restoration, and overall well-being. These significant results allowed her to conduct further studies to test out effects of procaine to individuals [1].

Gerovital (GH-3) Aslan found that by incorporation benzoic acid as a preservative and potassium metabisulfite as an anti-Oxidant, the molecule of procaine became balanced, and the procaine effects were even more dramatic. She named her enhanced procaine version as “Gerovital” [2].

Gerovital is one of the many widely known rejuvenation products in the globe today. The nootropic is said to provide a potent long-acting anti-depressant properties. Aslan’s test findings have been met with heavy skepticism, and further research outside Aslan’s lab received yielded mixed results [1] [2].

Inhibition of MAO

Gerovital has been proven to hinder MAO (monoamine oxidase); an enzyme found within the brain. MAO is primarily responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter such as that of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. As individuals become older, the activity of MAO increases, causing a breakdown of these neurotransmitters. Dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin are responsible for feeling of calmness and pleasure. Individuals are taking in the nootropic report of enhanced energy levels, awareness, and mood. Such effects may be due to the inhibition of the MAO [2] [3].

Research Studies

A single study indicated that procaine enhanced the use of oxygen within the brains of older rodents to levels equivalent to that of younger rats. This suggests that this could be another approach that Gerovital can achieve its effects [4].

Gerovital has been given approval by the Romanian government for treating the body’s aging effects. These could include neuralgia, atherosclerosis, neuritis, arthritis, and others [5].

Recent clinical studies reported Gerovitals effects in a varying medical conditions, which include mental retardation, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease. Multiple studies conducted compared the effectiveness of the nootropic to Piracetam, leading to similar improvements within the central nervous system processes. Another study led to further improvements in cognitive function when Piracetam was mixed with another drug, Aslavital [1] [6].

There have been other studies that failed to carry out similar findings of the nootropic. The majority of these studies was claiming Gerovital to be false utilized Procaine instead of the actual Gerovital preparation. Researchers believe that Procaine has similar properties to Gerovital. But developers of the nootropic claim the ingredient traces are essential [7].

Side Effects:

There have been no reports of significant negative effects of Gerovital except for very rare allergic reactions [1].

Drug Dosage

A Gerovital tablet can be taken once a day for 25 days. No tablets are ingested for a period of five days prior to the start of another round. Via injectable, the nootropic can be administered once every third day of the month then resting for one prior to the next round. Such complex plan intake was made by Aslan to let the enzymes restore the Procaine breakdown, while desensitizing the Procaine effects. The schedule may be present a challenge for patients to follow. One or two weekly injections on a consistent basis offer an equivalent effect [8].

Purchase

In the United States, Gerovital can only be bought in Nevada. It’s typically available over-the-counter in Romania, in the majority of European countries, and in Mexico [7].

References:

  1. http://www.smart-publications.com/books/full-text/smart-drugs-and-nutrients/smart-drugs-and-nutrients-sec-5/smart-drugs-and-nutrients-sec5-gerovital-gh-3
  2. http://www.ageless.co.za/procaine.htm
  3. http://www.emaxhealth.com/1275/banned-antiaging-drug-gerovital-h3-makes-comeback
  4. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=UKgfDsRffnkC&pg=PA371&lpg=PA371&dq=procaine+enhanced+the+use+of+oxygen&source=bl&ots=GYC5Jor3wD&sig=UANj8dR0ckFYrFPdY6xJItyGLtk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=08FTVIu8BdbsaPGcgfAH&ved=0CB0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=procaine%20enhanced%20the%20use%20of%20oxygen&f=false
  5. http://intelegen.com/nutrients/dmae_and_paba_an_alternative_to.htm
  6. http://www.zalmo.com/scientificstudies.pdf
  7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerovital
  8. http://www.drugs.com/npp/kh-3.html

Nootropics Review: Rhodiola Rosea

Rhodiola Rosea is a known herb and nootropic that has been used widely for several years. It’s believed to boost the nervous system, fight off depression, improve immunity, increase energy levels, enhance memory and aids in weight loss. The herb is a highly potent adaptogen. Adaptogens are chemicals that enhances the body’s overall defense while optimizing body functions [1][2].

Stress Fighting

Rohdiola RoseaIn the event of a stressful event, taking in adaptogens creates a non-specific resistance that lets our body handle any stressful situation reasonably. It’s theorized that adaptogens function by enhancing the capability of cells to create and utilize cell fuel efficiently.

Rhodiola Rosea appearing to have a significant impact on the levels of central monoamine, it may also offer advantages and the primary adaptogen choice in illnesses characterized by an unbalanced monoamines in the central nervous system. This remains consistent with claims of improvement in schizophrenia and depression. It’s been suggested that research in areas such as chronic fatigue, seasonal affective disorder, fibromyalgia, and others have been observed.

Claims were also made indicating that the nootropic can treat asthenic conditions, physical and mental strain, and other viral-based illnesses. Two random and controlled clinical studies were done on the herb’s extract offer concrete evidence on its adaptogen properties [2] [3].

Memory Enhancement

Clinical studies via proofreading tests showed that the Rhodiola Rosea significantly improved the ability to recall and concentration over a prolonged period. It enhances the electrical activity within the brain, thus enhancing mental energy and memory.

In another study, forty students were randomly offered a 50 mg dose of the herb’s extract or placebo twice a day in a 20-day period. Students who received the extract showcased improvements in mental performance, physical fitness, and overall well-being. Those same subjects also saw a dip in mental fatigue, improved sleeping patterns, mood stability, and increased motivation to study. Average test scores between students taking the nootropic and placebo were at 3.47 and 3.20 respectively [4].

Immune System Benefits

Rhodiola Rosea shields and triggers the immune system by normalizing the metabolic balance of the body. It also multiplies the natural killer cells within the spleen and the stomach. Such action may be a result of hormone normalization via modulation of glucocorticoid release in the body [4] [5].

Other Notable Benefits of Rhodiola Rosea

There are a number of other benefits observed from taking the nootropic. Its capable of regulating blood sugar levels protects the liver from toxins and improves hearing [6]. The herb is also capable of breaking down fats and mobilizing lipids from the adipose tissue to the fat burning system to promote weight loss [7].

Rhodiola Rosea enhances thyroid function without triggering hyperthyroidism and delaying the aging process. It improves the adrenal gland reserves without any hypertrophy [2]. For many years, the nootropic is shown to enhance erectile dysfunction/premature ejaculation while balancing prostatic fluid [8].

References:

  1. http://www.med.nyu.edu/content?ChunkIID=111798
  2. http://www.herbwisdom.com/herb-rhodiola.html
  3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11410073
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25268730
  5. http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/QAA400399/Rhodiola-for-What-Ails-You.html
  6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1596291
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20623718
  8. http://www.medicinehunter.com/rhodiola

Nootropics Review: CILTEP

CILTEP is a nootropic and supplement made to enhance and maintain brain capabilities in terms of motivation, memory, and concentration. It’s a new nootropic made from a mixture of forskolin and artichoke extract, and it functions in conjunction with choline-enhancing nootropic stacks.

CILTEP basically stands for Chemically Induced Long-Term Potentiation. It enhances learning and memory by optimizing and giving support to the levels of intracellular second messengers [1].

Benefits and Targeted Users

CILTEPMost users say the nootropic creates a potent effect similar to that of Modafinil, another known nootropic. CILTEP works ideally for individuals who are struggling to learn new content, and concentrating on a series of tasks that can last for several hours.

CILTEP processes are precious to nootropic users for a number of reasons. It has a powerful and positive effect in memory. Since long-term potentiation aids in our ability to utilize and store new information, it can be useful for studying and learning a new set of skills. Another positive effect of the nootropic is its amplifying activity of neurotransmitters such as that of dopamine, and acetylcholine. This leads to a significant improvement in cognition and overall learning speed.

Certain individuals may look into CILTEP as a way of enhancing athletic capabilities since it also improves particular sensitivity in some hormones. This could be useful in workouts and recovery time by biologically manipulating the chemistry of the body [2] [3].

Stack Ingredients

An interesting aspect of the CILTEP stack is that you don’t have to utilize certain ingredients in order for it to remain useful or for it to work. The mechanisms of CILTEP happens with synergy of several pharmacological chemical classes. — each consisting of a factor in aiding the other [4].

cAMP Increase

Typically, the CILTEP effects are made by spiking the cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, or cAMP. cAMP is a basically a molecule that conducts second messaging, which involves signal transmission from the outer and internal cellular parts. In a precise manner, cAMP lets certain hormones (glucagon and adrenaline for instance), to influence their mechanisms on cells and triggering protein kinases. When you utilize more of it, the neurotransmitters efficiently function since their signals on the cells act proficiently [5].

PDE4 Inhibitor

Increasing cAMP directly may be the most limited flexibility of the CILTEP equation since forskolin is utilized. But a significant factor responsible for increasing cAMP is the inhibition of PDE4, a chemical largely responsible for its natural breakdown. Since there is a plethora of chemicals that inhibit PDE4, it’s deemed to be an all-around substance within the stack.

One notable option is Rolipram, an unpopular Racetam drug that has been utilized to inhibit PDE4. It’s rarely used in practice due to its side effects, among them being vomiting and nausea.

The PDE4 inhibiting properties from CILTEP is sourced from an artichoke extract in luteolin form. Such substance functions as an immunity booster and an anti-oxidant aside from its inhibition characteristics [6] [7].

CILTEP Sources and Effects

The contents required for CILTEP are easy to find. They can be selected from a shop or ordered via the internet in the form of powder or capsules. No standard dosages are indicated for each stack part, but it’s advisable to take a standard dose per ingredient to gain the appropriate CILTEP effect. It can take as long as a week to feel its effects.

Side effects of the nootropic are minimal since it’s practically safe to slightly increase cAMP levels. It’s important to take note that PDE4 inhibitors are notorious for causing nausea at high concentrations.

References:

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16672292
  2. http://www.powdercity.com/pages/artichoke-extract-forskolin-ciltep-stack
  3. http://nootriment.com/ciltep-stack/
  4. http://www.smarternootropics.com/2014/03/ciltep-stack-review-a-week-with-ciltep/
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20969573
  6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2704616/
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9844008

Nootropics Review: Asian Ginseng

Asian Ginseng is acknowledged to be one of the many highly regarded herbal meds in Asia. It’s also a nootropic capable of promoting health, prolonged life, and treating a number of ailments that include aging, depression, fatigue, nervousness, ulcers, pulmonary, and among other things [1].

History

The usage of Asian Ginseng dates back for more than 5,000 years. Its genus name, Panax, is a Greek word which means “all healing.” Asian Ginseng also has another meaning, “wonder of the world.” Both of these terms refer to the medical benefits of the nootropic. In recent years, the nootropic has been popular in the Western world along with a comprehensive literature of its advantages [2].

Treatments and Benefits

Asian Ginseng Asian Ginseng is also listed to treat cancer, depression, diabetes, insomnia, insomnia, hypertension, stress, certain long-term illnesses, and effects from cocaine and morphine use. It’s been said to function as a stimulant, enhance endurance, encourage adequate hormone functionality, minimize cholesterol levels, and increased resistance to certain diseases. The nootropic has been utilized to increase energy, appetite, increase fertility, ease childbirth, and adequately regulating menses [3].

Recent research shows the plant capable of functioning as an “adaptogen,” extending lifespan by fighting off viral infections including that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Current studies continue to support the plant’s protective role against anti-cancer drugs and modern treatment. It’s even said to counter the unpleasant side effects from chemotherapy [3].

Some have thought the nootropic to be particularly valuable in curbing dependence or overuse of psychostimulants or opioids.

The nootropic has been utilized in stimulating and calmed the nervous system. It promotes circulation of the capillaries within the brain and lessens the effects of stress. While there are different types of Ginseng today, none is as potent as the Asian Ginseng in terms of medicinal ingredients and health effects. It features close to 30 ginsenosides compared to its other ginseng relatives, which has an average of 10 [4].

Asian Ginseng features  anti-aging properties that include insulin-like ingredients and anti-oxidants not usually observed in other ginseng types [4].

Ginsenosides

Ginsenosides are a wide group of steroidal saponins capable of targeting a number of tissues, which result to varying pharmacological reactions. But most processes from ginsenoside activity have yet been studied. Since ginsenosides and other ginseng-based constituents offer effects different from each other, with one ginsenoside initiating a number of processes within the same tissue, the total overall pharmacology of ginseng is highly complex [5].

Cognition and Physical Improvements

Ginseng for brainIn a number of studies, a mixture of Asian Ginseng with other ginsengs is believed to enhance memory recall and thinking processes. Previous results from lab studies may indicate that the substances in Asian ginseng enable new growth of blood vessels, which may be valuable in the treatment of extended injuries [6] [7].

The World Health Organization (WHO) and the German Commission E monograph have supported ginseng use as a restoration agent and a prophylactic in improving physical and mental capabilities. Also used for tiredness, exhaustion, weakness, concentration loss, and during convalescence [5].

References:

  1. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/asianginseng/ataglance.htm
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ginseng
  3. http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/herb/asian-ginseng
  4. http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/herbsvitaminsandminerals/ginseng
  5. http://www.herbwisdom.com/herb-ginseng-asian.html
  6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21154383
  7. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007769.pub2/abstract

Nootropic Review: Selank

Selank is an anxiolytic heptapeptide and a nootropic made by the Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It has been widely considered as a nootropic with anxiolytic effects. Selank is a synthetically analog of the peptide Tuftsin. It’s known for enhancing and altering the immune system in a positive manner. This have led the nootropic to be classified under the immunomodulatory category.

Selank

Semax, along with another heptapeptide nootropic, was made by researchers at the Molecular Genetics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The substance is very much related to Selank and has been approved for use in humans in Russia and Ukraine. A number of reports from users and researchers showed that Selank is far more efficient choice than Semax. The nootropic, however, recently wrapped up the third stage of clinical trials in Russia. It’s now waiting a green light for public use [1] [2].

Dosages

Selank dosageIn general, a 250 to 500 mg of the drug should be taken at once or twice daily. Selank isn’t bio-available orally since it’s a peptide that is hydrolyzed and broken down into amino acids within the gut. As a result, both methods of intake are either through subcutaneous injection or intranasal. If you happen to have purchased freeze-dried Selank powder, it should remain stable for three months although it’s recommended to store it in the fridge as much as possible.

Meanwhile, a lyophilized Selank will entail a reconstitution with bacteriostatic water prior to intranasal or subcutaneous injection [3].

Mechanism

From a pharmacological point of view, the nootropic mimics a majority of its results from Tuftsin – that is a peptide where it’s sourced upon. Such effects involve balancing T-helper cells and a modulation expression of the Interleukin-6.

Furthermore, there’s increasing evidence suggesting Selank may be able to modulate the expression of the neurotropic factor.

Selank’s action processes are believed to be related to serotonin increase. Serotonin is primarily responsible for influencing a person’s appetite, positive mood, and regulation of the wake and sleep cycle. It’s also proven that a state lacking serotonin can lead to painful sleep, depression, and lack of hunger.

A study done on mice showed the Selank effects on monomines and their metabolites. It showcased a significant difference in dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin content as well as levels in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Additional research supports Selank’s serotonin-increasing capability.

Selank and Tuftsin were also indicated to provide serotonin levels even though rodents were pre-tested with a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, p-chlorophenylalanine. Metabolism of serotonin was improved within half an hour of nootropic administration while Tuftsin remained incapable of raising 5-HIT levels.

Rodents who were exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine, a neurotoxin that destroys the catecholaminergic system, had their cognition processes restored via Selank [4] [5].

Benefits

A mice study that were purposely bred to suffer depression showed the nootropic’s capability in fighting anhedonia and bring back pleasure-seeking behavior. Selank administration led to an increase in sucrose content and less immobility during a forced swim test.

A study that involved 62 patients with a General Anxiety Disorder (GAD) wanted to compare the nootropic to benzodiazepine. 30 patients were given a Selank treatment while the remaining 32 had benzodiazepines. Surprisingly, the effectiveness of both drugs were strikingly similar, but scientists found that the nootropic possessed anti-fatigue effects. Complete study details were hard to extract since it was experimented in Russia, and a sole abstract only indexed by PubMed.

Another study experimented with the immunomodulatory effects of the nootropic given by the fact that its peptide relative Tuftsin has an immune function capability. Selank was given to patients suffering from GAD for two weeks, after which, it was observed Selank have the suppressed depression in patients while leaving healthy participants unaffected. T-helper cells have been modulated with patients who have GAD [6].

Cognitive Enhancing Properties

A study performed on an animal compared Selank to a saline placebo during a food-reward test that featured memory and learning. While certain study details remain unclear, since the test was done in Russia, scientists concluded that the nootropic enhanced memory consolidation. This mainly occurred via an increase in serotonin.

A study conducted in adult rats showcased Selank to compensate hypoxia-induced cognitive deficit while lowering noradrenaline and serotonin levels [6] [7].

 References:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selank
  2. http://nootropicsupplementreview.com/selank
  3. http://www.ironmagazine.com/2012/nootropics-selank-peptide-explained
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11550013
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18454096
  6. http://www.smarternootropics.com/selank
  7. http://www.europsy-journal.com/article/S0924-9338%2812%2975281-1/abstract

Nootropic Review: Vitamin B6

Vitamin-B6Vitamin B6, in a number of forms, is a water-soluble vitamin and a natural nootropic found in a wide range of foods [1]. It plays a significant role in more than one hundred enzyme mechanisms associated with lipids, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and carbohydrate metabolism. Its properties are linked to many health benefits [2]. Furthermore, it is constant found in meats, non-citrus fruits, and vegetables. The nootropic is also found in a number of multivitamins, but it can also be utilized as a separate dietary supplement [3].

Mechanisms

The tone of  action of  Vitamin B6, in terms of nootropic qualities, entails some discussion. The nootropics so widely availability in the body’s functions that extract a correlation between Vitamin B6 intake and specific treatment of a particular condition has been nothing but a challenge [4].

A general scientific theory is that, Vitamin B6, often working hand in hand with other B Vitamins can minimize brain atrophy and cognition impairment by reducing homocysteine levels within the blood. Demonstration of studies indicates that while ingesting Vitamin B6 and other vitamins can lessen homocysteine levels and reduce the chances of brain atrophy, it’s not effective in curbing or curing impaired cognition [5] [6].

Benefits

With Vitamin B6 being involved in a number of enzyme reaction, advantages of ingesting the nootropic frequently visible in a wide range of health concerns. Furthermore, it is safe in normalization of  homocysteine level and slowing the process of cognitive degeneration to curb cardiovascular problems. It has been indicated to lessen colorectal cancer risks in a study involving postmenopausal women while normalizing blood sugar levels, and treating nausea. There are plenty of other advantages and application with the nootropic, both for health and in treating particular developed conditions [7].

Dosages

Vitamin-B6-DosageFor the majority of adults, the recommended daily intake of Vitamin B6 is at 1.3 mg [1]. Such amount can easily be taken from a healthy and balanced diet which include legumes, meat, whole grain, and poultry [7].Taking a 100 mg of the nootropic daily is considered to be safe. No adverse effects have been observed when taking 200 mg of Vitamin B6 daily [8].

Toxicity Reports

Since Vitamin B6 is a passively delivered, potential toxic dosages can be absorbed. Repetitive high dosages can lead to nerve damage, skin lesions, ataxia, and sensitivity to light. At the same time, deficiency of Vitamin B6 can also possess a number of adverse effects which include confusion, mouth sores, depression, and less immune system efficiency to fighting off infections [9].

References:

  1. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002402.htm
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_B6
  3. http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/vitamin-b6/background/hrb-20058788
  4. http://www.nutritionj.com/content/5/1/6
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17848650
  6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838622
  7. http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/ART02763/vitamin-b6.html
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16320662
  9. http://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional

Nootropic Review: Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Omega 3 fatty acidsOmega 3 fatty acids such as that of DHA and EPA are essential substances required for a number of body functions. These include the synthesis of the cell membrane (especially in neurons), control of inflammation, and blood clotting. Ingesting Omega 3 is related to a number of health benefits which include protection from cancer, stroke, heart complications, autoimmune and specific inflammatory diseases.

The fatty acid, also known as natural nootropic, offers adequate anti-depressive properties with a fair number of research details behind it. In treating ADHD, Omega 3 isn’t enough as a standalone treatment — but it has been helpful in certain aspects.

As a cognitive enhancer, for healthy individuals who don’t adequately attain Omega 3 fatty acids, it would seem that further DHA and EPA intake can be beneficial. Research indicates that an improvement is concentration, reaction time, and reduced stress can be observed.

Dosages

Between 1 to 2 grams in total of DHA or EPA daily would be adequate for most users. This would typically come from a bigger dosage of fish oil, usually at 6g with a 30% concentration of DHA/EPA per gram. If you happen to be suffering from depression, anxiety, stress, or inflammatory disorders, you can go for 3 to 4 g of DHA/EPA per day.

Benefits

While Omega 3 has a plethora of benefits, many will be wanted to see if there are any benefits for healthy individuals with a low Omega 3 intake. Hardly any surprise for an imperative nutrient, the nootropic has a number of benefits to the body, which include:

  • Enhanced triglyceride levels
  • Enhanced sensitivity to insulin
  • Reduced cardiovascular disease development
  • Enhanced reaction time
  • Improved memory and recall
  • Improved attention span
  • Reduced inflammation markers
  • Acuity in vision
  • Reduction in stress

Depression

Initial studies indicated that minimal Omega 3 fatty acids within the brain of infants closely associated with impaired visual acuity and perception. Based on recent human and animal studies, it showed that little Omega 3 levels within the brain is associated with cognition problems including a greater risk for ADHD, memory problems, and schizophrenia. Further studies also showed that low Omega 3 level intake in mothers lead to reduced neural development in their babies.

Alzheimer’s and Dementia

Conflict scientific evidence with regards to Omega 3 fatty acids efficiency and intake in Alzheimer’s and dementia treatment have been carried out. Small number of evidence indicated Omega 3 to be efficient in minimizing Alzheimer’s symptoms and risk to dementia.

Other studies indicate that the nootropic may be helpful in minimizing dementia risk while improving on Alzheimer’s symptoms. A study found that supplementing Omega 3 fatty acids enhanced EPA levels on the plasma membranes — a critical and clear indication of enhanced cognition capability.

Mechanisms

Omega 3 for brainOmega 3 fatty acids bring on their effect by minimizing the AA (arachidonic acid) derived from the production of eicosanoid. Eicosanoids that have been synthesized from the AA are said to play a critical position in a number of disease mechanisms including that of mental illness. AA coming from eicosanoids play important roles with regards to contraction of smooth muscles, inflammation, immunity, and platelet aggregation.

Omega 3 fatty acids, especially EPA, take effect by minimizing the metabolism of the arachidonic acid. EPA aids in producing alternative eicosanoids, which are thought to be less powerful, but still a beneficial. EPA also helps in producing Protectin D1 – a lipid mediator believed to play an integral part in protecting neuronal tissues from any destruction.

The nootropic is one of the many integral components found in a neuronal cell wall. Adequate consumption of Omega 3 lets neurons function normally by giving support to chemical transport and allowing for cell interaction. The substance also alters neuronal fluidity that aid in mood enhancement in depressed individuals and promote cognitive development in fetus and infants.

Safety and Side Effects

A number of studies indicate that ingesting Omega 3 is entirely safe. Possible side effects from the nootropic may include: GI upset, nausea, watery stools, and a fishy taste. These can easily be avoided when going for a premium produce or by not ingesting over 5 g of Omega 3.

Nootropic Review: Pyritinol

Pyritinol is a nootropic that has been patented by Merck in 1961. It’s recognized to be one of the oldest nootropics still being used today. Pyritinol generated a number published research in 1980s and 1990s during its early study period, and this is likely due to its wide number of uses, efficiency, and safety of the nootropic. The majority of the study done on the drug has been published in a number of Czech, Swiss, German, French, and British journals [1].

The nootropic is virtually not popular in the United States and has been ignored by the FDA and AMA. Pyritinol is also named as pyridoxine disulfide and Pyrithioxine [2] [3]. The nootropic’s molecule involves two pyridoxine sulfide molecules conjugated to create two sulfur atoms [3]. The drug has been widely used to enhance memory and to treat individuals with learning disorders, dementia, and rheumatoid arthritis [2]. Furthermore, Pyritinol has been classified as nootropic since the 1990s [1].

Pyritinol

Dosages of Pyritinol

The half-life of the nootropic is around two and a half hours. Most common daily intake are within the 400 to 600 mg per day although it’s still no unusual to take in 100 mg or as much 1,200 mg daily. The drug is frequently sold in tablet form with labels that indicate ingesting the supplement with food. An average lethal dosage for oral intake is around 300 mg per kg for mice, 980 mg per kg for rats, and up t0 3,200 mg per kg for rabbits [4] [5].

Mechanisms of Pyritinol

Pyritinol facilitates more blood flow to the cerebrum of the brain via nerve cell enhancement. It’s also capable of moving intracellular choline from the choline kinase pathway to synthesize Acetylcholine, a known neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine hosts a number of functions in the nervous system as well as memory retention, muscle movement, and alertness sustainability [6].

Observed Benefits

The nootropic was utilized in France as a modifying drug that interrupts the progress of rheumatoid arthritis. It’s also capable of treating cognitive disorders by increasing the functions of the brain and learning capabilities [7] [8].

A study that involved 12 volunteers compared performance on a number of psychological tests found that subjects provided with Pyritinol doses showed enhance performance on a choice reaction time experiment to an extended degree than those taking a placebo. However, memory tests didn’t offer big differences in the performance of both groups [5].

A small group study gave support to a theory that Pyritinol doses taken during alcohol intake may lessen hangover-related symptoms [2].

Toxicity Issues

Pyritinol has a reputation for being safe. But in small and reported cases, the nootropic may be responsible for cholestatic hepatitis [9]. A study that compared the drug’s effectiveness with that of Auranofin (an anti-rheumatic drug) noted serious muscle and gastrointestinal effects in patients although such effects also surfaced in users of Auranofin as well [10].

References:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyritinol
  2. http://examine.com/supplements/Pyritinol/#ref2
  3. http://nootriment.com/pyritinol
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC381054
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2135070
  6. http://www.smarternootropics.com/table-of-contents/pyritinol
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC381054
  8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23120794
  9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15001508
  10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8495257

Nootropic Review: Lion’s Mane Mushroom

Lion’s Mane is a nootropic mushroom going by the names of Sheep’s Head, Bear’s Head and Yamabushitake. The mushroom can be recognized immediately for its teeth-resembling spines compared to other mushrooms possessing the common cap-and-stem look. Lion’s mane has been utilized in Chinese medicine for centuries [1] [2].

Nootropic Stack

Lion’s Mane MushroomLion’s Mane is an excellent addition for a majority of stacks and can likely pair sufficiently with ALCAR, which is capable of enhancing NGF sensitivity in vitro. Further evidence indicate the nootropic to have memory-enhancing and anxiolytic properties that can mesh well with Bacopa [3].

Dosages of Lion’s Mane

A couple human studies to date involved using two to three grams of the nootropic extracted from fruiting bodies. Such studies noted a number of benefits through the given dosages. It’s still not clear if going above 3g/day would be a great benefit [4].

Nootropic Structure

Most of the research done involved focusing on two compounds: Erinacine and Hericenones. Hericenones usually found in the body of the mushroom while Erinacine taken from the mycelium. Both groups of compounds have a number of similar sub-components. The majority of them seem to trigger the release of growth factor.

Aside from the two compounds, the nootropic has a wealth of polysaccharides and some phenol content [4].

Absorption Properties

Certain absorption data for the Hericenones and Erinacine for humans has either been left unknown or never officially published. Recent studies in menopausal females indicate that it’s still not clear if such compounds made it past the blood-brain barrier [4].

Lion’s Mane Benefits

A study involving 18 rodents indicate that the nootropic has a neurodegenerative potential. Rats were divided into three groups: placebo, Lion’s Mane, and Methylcobalamin. The rodents were pre-treated for 2weeks by undergoing surgery to have sciatic nerve crushed, and then going for a 20-day post-surgical treatment.

Initial gait improvement was observed four days after both groups while the group without a placebo saw no changes. By the 10th day, the spreading of toes reverted back to its pre-surgical levels in both treated groups. Meanwhile, the placebo group showed no improvement. Scientists theorized that the nootropic improved recovery of the nerve via the neurogenesis.

A study that involved mice testing indicated the nootropic’s ability to support short term memory and recognition of objects after being exposed to beta-amyloid peptides. The beta-amyloid peptides are widely known for minimizing cognitive processes in rodents. Lion’s Mane was observed to curb cognitive deficit triggered by the beta amylase peptide by facilitating memory and object discrimination through a recognition test.

A Lion’s Mane extract of fruiting bodies found it to enhance healing of wounds when applied on the skin.Scientists observed minimal scarring and more blood vessel formation in the Lion’s Mane group compared to wounds treated with distilled water.

A one-month study consisting of 30 post-menopausal women showed that the nootropic was capable of minimizing anxiety and depression compared to those taking placebos. Volunteers were divided into two groups – one with powdered Lion’s mane (given in the form of cookies at four cookies daily consisting of 0.5 g of the nootropic), and the other with a placebo. After a month, patients from the Lion Mane’s group showcased less irritability, anxiety, and symptoms of depression compared to the placebo group [3] [5] [6].

Mechanism of Lion’s Mane

A number of studies showed how the Lion’s Mane is capable of improving the release of NGF. The compounds responsible were speculated to be Heroines and Erinacine. Human astrocytes cells study showcased how NGF expression through the JNK signaling along with the nootropic increased NGF and mRNA expression [7].

Lion’s Mane Safety and Side Effects

The nootropic has been culinary served in Asia for centuries and appears to be tolerated well by a majority of users.. One minor side effect observed in human clinical trials was gastrointestinal distress [8].

References:

  1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hericium_erinaceus
  2. http://www.perpetualcommotion.com/a/Lions_Mane.html
  3. http://www.smarternootropics.com/lions-mane-mushroom
  4. http://examine.com/supplements/Yamabushitake
  5. https://sites.google.com/site/forgetmenotps/mushroom/health-benefits-of-mushrooms
  6. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/paul-stamets/mushroom-memory_b_1725583.html
  7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20834180
  8. http://nootriment.com/lions-mane

Nootropc Review: Coluracetam

Being one of the new members of the Racetam family, Coluracetam made its first registration with PubChem back in 2005 via the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, which was given to Brain cells Inc.later. Brain cells did a majority of testing on the nootropic including its Phase 2A trials, which wrapped up in 2010 for treating Major Depressive Disorder with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. No significant results were shown for individuals possessing one of the two conditions [1] [2] .

Mechanism of Coluracetam

Coluracetam structureColuracetam seems to have completely defined processes; the first involving increase affinity choline uptake and the potentiation of AMPA. As in cases with a few Racetam members, the nootropic has been proven to facilitate AMAP potentiation, which is known to enhance memory, learning, and wakefulness [3].

What’s particularly interesting with Coluracetam is its functionality in terms of high-affinity choline uptake. Choline uptake plays a significant role in the synthesis mechanism of Acetylcholine within the brain by functioning as “rate limiter.” The step of rate limiting gives the brain a chance to convert Choline into Acetylcholine within the neuron. With increasing choline uptake, the mind is ready to convert the choline into Acetylcholine. By enhancing the capability of converting the choline to Acetylcholine, in theory, it should enhance alertness, attention, and memory in humans [4].

Notable Benefits

The initial observed benefit of Coluracetam is in its ameliorating influence of glutamate neurotoxicity. Cortical cultures were extracted from fetal mice treated with a chemical that triggers glutamate toxicity. The cultures were treated via the nootropic for 12hours to one day. After a period of exposure, it was observed that Coluracetam ameliorated the effects of exposure [5].

Another benefit observed with the nootropic was minimizing the learning deficits in rates via the Morris Water Maze test. Adult rats within the experimented group were given a cholinergic neurotoxin. The controlled group involved healthy rats. With the group, Coluracetam significantly minimized learning deficits related with neurotoxin administration without triggering any serious side effects such as hypothermia, drooling, or tremor. It seems that from such study, the nootropic had little effect on the healthy rats than it did with the experimented group [6].

The last well-known benefit of the nootropic signifies long-term improvement in individuals with learning impairment. Rats were treated with a cholinergic neurotoxin AF64A and administered repetitive dosages of Coluracetam for 8-straight days at 3 mg per kg per day. Scientists concluded that after72 hours of the last administration of the nootropic, rats with learning impairment still showcased improvements in the Morris Water Maze test [6] [7].

During the experiment, scientists also conducted a test as to whether or not Coluracetam can be detected in the body of rats at the time of the test. They found that while the rats were showcasing positive effects from its previous administration, Coluracetam content within their systems were negligible [6] [7].

Dosages of Coluracetam

COLURACETAMOf the experiment conducted in adult rats, the dosage schedule ranged from 1 mg per kg to 10 mg per kg daily. At the high-end dosage range, the dose in average human adult is equivalent to 2.9 mg per kg.This is around 203.5 mg/day for an average human weight [6].

Just recently, BrainCells Inc., concluded the Phase2A trials of Coluracetam, going under the monikerBCI-540, where they administered up to 80 mg thrice daily of the drug for adult humans suffering from a  Major Depressive Disorder. 36% of the participants showcased improvements in their scores on the drug test [1].

Toxicity of Coluracetam

Phase 2A trials done by Brain Cells Inc. indicated that 80 mg of the nootropic given thrice daily showed no side effects. At that time, it was deemed the highest dosage schedule for the drug [1].

References:

  1. http://www.smarternootropics.com/coluracetam/
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coluracetam
  3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18461273
  4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18446264
  5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9541286
  6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8740080
  7. http://examine.com/supplements/Coluracetam/#summary3-0
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